Use common Kotlin patterns with Android

This topic focuses on some of the most useful aspects of the Kotlin language when developing for Android.

Work with fragments

The following sections use Fragment examples to highlight some of Kotlin's best features.


You can declare a class in Kotlin with the class keyword. In the following example, LoginFragment is a subclass of Fragment. You can indicate inheritance by using the : operator between the subclass and its parent:

class LoginFragment : Fragment()

In this class declaration, LoginFragment is responsible for calling the constructor of its superclass, Fragment.

Within LoginFragment, you can override a number of lifecycle callbacks to respond to state changes in your Fragment. To override a function, use the override keyword, as shown in the following example:

override fun onCreateView(
        inflater: LayoutInflater,
        container: ViewGroup?,
        savedInstanceState: Bundle?
): View? {
    return inflater.inflate(R.layout.login_fragment, container, false)

To reference a function in the parent class, use the super keyword, as shown in the following example:

override fun onViewCreated(view: View, savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
    super.onViewCreated(view, savedInstanceState)

Nullability and initialization

In the previous examples, some of the parameters in the overridden methods have types suffixed with a question mark ?. This indicates that the arguments passed for these parameters can be null. Be sure to handle their nullability safely.

In Kotlin, you must initialize an object's properties when declaring the object. This implies that when you obtain an instance of a class, you can immediately reference any of its accessible properties. The View objects in a Fragment, however, aren’t ready to be inflated until calling Fragment#onCreateView, so you need a way to defer property initialization for a View.

The lateinit lets you defer property initialization. When using lateinit, you should initialize your property as soon as possible.

The following example demonstrates using lateinit to assign View objects in onViewCreated:

class LoginFragment : Fragment() {

    private lateinit var usernameEditText: EditText
    private lateinit var passwordEditText: EditText
    private lateinit var loginButton: Button
    private lateinit var statusTextView: TextView

    override fun onViewCreated(view: View, savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
        super.onViewCreated(view, savedInstanceState)

        usernameEditText = view.findViewById(
        passwordEditText = view.findViewById(
        loginButton = view.findViewById(
        statusTextView = view.findViewById(


SAM conversion

You can listen for click events in Android by implementing the OnClickListener interface. Button objects contain a setOnClickListener() function that takes in an implementation of OnClickListener.

OnClickListener has a single abstract method, onClick(), that you must implement. Because setOnClickListener() always takes an OnClickListener as an argument, and because OnClickListener always has the same single abstract method, this implementation can be represented using an anonymous function in Kotlin. This process is known as Single Abstract Method conversion, or SAM conversion.

SAM conversion can make your code considerably cleaner. The following example shows how to use SAM conversion to implement an OnClickListener for a Button:

loginButton.setOnClickListener {
    val authSuccessful: Boolean = viewModel.authenticate(
    if (authSuccessful) {
        // Navigate to next screen
    } else {
        statusTextView.text = requireContext().getString(R.string.auth_failed)

The code within the anonymous function passed to setOnClickListener() executes when a user clicks loginButton.

Companion objects

Companion objects provide a mechanism for defining variables or functions that are linked conceptually to a type but are not tied to a particular object. Companion objects are similar to using Java's static keyword for variables and methods.

In the following example, TAG is a String constant. You don’t need a unique instance of the String for each instance of LoginFragment, so you should define it in a companion object:

class LoginFragment : Fragment() {


    companion object {
        private const val TAG = "LoginFragment"

You could define TAG at the top level of the file, but the file might also have a large number of variables, functions, and classes that are also defined at the top level. Companion objects help to connect variables, functions, and the class definition without referring to any particular instance of that class.

Property delegation

When initializing properties, you might repeat some of Android's more common patterns, such as accessing a ViewModel within a Fragment. To avoid excess duplicate code, you can use Kotlin’s property delegation syntax.

private val viewModel: LoginViewModel by viewModels()

Property delegation provides a common implementation that you can reuse throughout your app. Android KTX provides some property delegates for you. viewModels, for example, retrieves a ViewModel that is scoped to the current Fragment.

Property delegation uses reflection, which adds some performance overhead. The tradeoff is a concise syntax that saves development time.


Kotlin provides strict nullability rules that maintain type-safety throughout your app. In Kotlin, references to objects cannot contain null values by default. To assign a null value to a variable, you must declare a nullable variable type by adding ? to the end of the base type.

As an example, the following expression is illegal in Kotlin. name is of type String and isn't nullable:

val name: String = null

To allow a null value, you must use a nullable String type, String?, as shown in the following example:

val name: String? = null


Kotlin's strict rules make your code safer and more concise. These rules lower the chances of having a NullPointerException that would cause your app to crash. Moreover, they reduce the number of null checks you need to make in your code.

Often, you must also call into non-Kotlin code when writing an Android app, as most Android APIs are written in the Java programming language.

Nullability is a key area where Java and Kotlin differ in behavior. Java is less strict with nullability syntax.

As an example, the Account class has a few properties, including a String property called name. Java does not have Kotlin’s rules around nullability, instead relying on optional nullability annotations to explicitly declare whether you can assign a null value.

Because the Android framework is written primarily in Java, you might run into this scenario when calling into APIs without nullability annotations.

Platform types

If you use Kotlin to reference a unannotated name member that is defined in a Java Account class, the compiler doesn't know whether the String maps to a String or a String? in Kotlin. This ambiguity is represented via a platform type, String!.

String! has no special meaning to the Kotlin compiler. String! can represent either a String or a String?, and the compiler lets you assign a value of either type. Note that you risk throwing a NullPointerException if you represent the type as a String and assign a null value.

To address this issue, you should use nullability annotations whenever you write code in Java. These annotations help both Java and Kotlin developers.

For example, here's the Account class as it's defined in Java:

public class Account implements Parcelable {
    public final String name;
    public final String type;
    private final @Nullable String accessId;


One of the member variables, accessId, is annotated with @Nullable, indicating that it can hold a null value. Kotlin would then treat accessId as a String?.

To indicate that a variable can never be null, use the @NonNull annotation:

public class Account implements Parcelable {
    public final @NonNull String name;

In this scenario, name is considered a non-nullable String in Kotlin.

Nullability annotations are included in all new Android APIs and many existing Android APIs. Many Java libraries have added nullability annotations to better support both Kotlin and Java developers.

Handling nullability

If you are unsure about a Java type, you should consider it to be nullable. As an example, the name member of the Account class is not annotated, so you should assume it to be a nullable String.

If you want to trim name so that its value does not include leading or trailing whitespace, you can use Kotlin’s trim function. You can safely trim a String? in a few different ways. One of these ways is to use the not-null assertion operator, !!, as shown in the following example:

val account = Account("name", "type")
val accountName =!!.trim()

The !! operator treats everything on its left-hand side as non-null, so in this case, you are treating name as a non-null String. If the result of the expression to its left is null, then your app throws a NullPointerException. This operator is quick and easy, but it should be used sparingly, as it can reintroduce instances of NullPointerException into your code.

A safer choice is to use the safe-call operator, ?., as shown in the following example:

val account = Account("name", "type")
val accountName =

Using the safe-call operator, if name is non-null, then the result of name?.trim() is a name value without leading or trailing whitespace. If name is null, then the result of name?.trim() is null. This means that your app can never throw a NullPointerException when executing this statement.

While the safe-call operator saves you from a potential NullPointerException, it does pass a null value to the next statement. You can instead handle null cases immediately by using an Elvis operator (?:), as shown in the following example:

val account = Account("name", "type")
val accountName = ?: "Default name"

If the result of the expression on the left-hand side of the Elvis operator is null, then the value on the right-hand side is assigned to accountName. This technique is useful for providing a default value that would otherwise be null.

You can also use the Elvis operator to return from a function early, as shown in the following example:

fun validateAccount(account: Account?) {
    val accountName = account?.name?.trim() ?: "Default name"

    // account cannot be null beyond this point
    account ?: return


Android API changes

Android APIs are becoming increasingly Kotlin-friendly. Many of Android's most-common APIs, including AppCompatActivity and Fragment, contain nullability annotations, and certain calls like Fragment#getContext have more Kotlin-friendly alternatives.

For example, accessing the Context of a Fragment is almost always non-null, since most of the calls that you make in a Fragment occur while the Fragment is attached to an Activity (a subclass of Context). That said, Fragment#getContext does not always return a non-null value, as there are scenarios where a Fragment is not attached to an Activity. Thus, the return type of Fragment#getContext is nullable.

Since the Context returned from Fragment#getContext is nullable (and is annotated as @Nullable), you must treat it as a Context? in your Kotlin code. This means applying one of the previously-mentioned operators to address nullability before accessing its properties and functions. For some of these scenarios, Android contains alternative APIs that provide this convenience. Fragment#requireContext, for example, returns a non-null Context and throws an IllegalStateException if called when a Context would be null. This way, you can treat the resulting Context as non-null without the need for safe-call operators or workarounds.

Property initialization

Properties in Kotlin are not initialized by default. They must be initialized when their enclosing class is initialized.

You can initialize properties in a few different ways. The following example shows how to initialize an index variable by assigning a value to it in the class declaration:

class LoginFragment : Fragment() {
    val index: Int = 12

This initialization can also be defined in an initializer block:

class LoginFragment : Fragment() {
    val index: Int

    init {
        index = 12

In the examples above, index is initialized when a LoginFragment is constructed.

However, you might have some properties that can't be initialized during object construction. For example, you might want to reference a View from within a Fragment, which means that the layout must be inflated first. Inflation does not occur when a Fragment is constructed. Instead, it's inflated when calling Fragment#onCreateView.

One way to address this scenario is to declare the view as nullable and initialize it as soon as possible, as shown in the following example:

class LoginFragment : Fragment() {
    private var statusTextView: TextView? = null

    override fun onViewCreated(view: View, savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
            super.onViewCreated(view, savedInstanceState)

            statusTextView = view.findViewById(

While this works as expected, you must now manage the nullability of the View whenever you reference it. A better solution is to use lateinit for View initialization, as shown in the following example:

class LoginFragment : Fragment() {
    private lateinit var statusTextView: TextView

    override fun onViewCreated(view: View, savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
            super.onViewCreated(view, savedInstanceState)

            statusTextView = view.findViewById(

The lateinit keyword allows you to avoid initializing a property when an object is constructed. If your property is referenced before being initialized, Kotlin throws an UninitializedPropertyAccessException, so be sure to initialize your property as soon as possible.