동작 변경사항: Android 14 이상을 타겟팅하는 앱

이전 버전과 마찬가지로 Android 14에는 앱에 영향을 미칠 수 있는 동작 변경사항이 포함되어 있습니다. 다음 동작 변경사항은 Android 14 (API 수준 34) 이상을 타겟팅하는 앱에만 적용됩니다. 앱이 Android 14 이상을 타겟팅한다면 이러한 동작을 올바르게 지원하도록 앱을 수정해야 합니다(해당하는 경우).

앱의 targetSdkVersion와 관계없이 Android 14에서 실행되는 모든 앱에 영향을 미치는 동작 변경사항 목록도 검토해야 합니다.

핵심 기능

포그라운드 서비스 유형은 필수 항목임

앱이 Android 14 (API 수준 34) 이상을 타겟팅하는 경우 앱 내의 각 포그라운드 서비스하나 이상의 포그라운드 서비스 유형을 지정해야 합니다. 앱의 사용 사례를 나타내는 포그라운드 서비스 유형을 선택해야 합니다. 시스템은 특정 유형의 포그라운드 서비스가 특정 사용 사례를 충족할 것으로 예상합니다.

앱의 사용 사례가 이러한 유형과 연결되지 않으면 WorkManager 또는 사용자가 시작한 데이터 전송 작업을 사용하도록 로직을 이전하는 것이 좋습니다.

BluetoothAdapter에서 BLUETOOTH_CONNECT 권한 적용

Android 14는 Android 14 (API 수준 34) 이상을 타겟팅하는 앱에서 BluetoothAdapter getProfileConnectionState() 메서드를 호출할 때 BLUETOOTH_CONNECT 권한을 적용합니다.

이 메서드에는 이미 BLUETOOTH_CONNECT 권한이 필요하지만 적용되지 않았습니다. 다음 스니펫과 같이 앱의 AndroidManifest.xml 파일에서 앱이 BLUETOOTH_CONNECT을 선언하는지 확인하고 getProfileConnectionState를 호출하기 전에 사용자가 권한을 부여했는지 확인합니다.

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH_CONNECT" />

OpenJDK 17 업데이트

Android 14에서는 앱 및 플랫폼 개발자를 위한 라이브러리 업데이트와 Java 17 언어 지원을 비롯하여 최신 OpenJDK LTS 출시의 기능과 일치하도록 Android의 핵심 라이브러리를 새로고침하는 작업을 계속하고 있습니다.

다음과 같은 변경사항은 앱 호환성에 영향을 미칠 수 있습니다.

  • 정규 표현식 변경사항: OpenJDK의 시맨틱을 더 엄격하게 준수하도록 이제 잘못된 그룹 참조가 허용되지 않습니다. java.util.regex.Matcher 클래스에 의해 IllegalArgumentException이 발생하는 새로운 사례가 있을 수 있으므로 정규 표현식을 사용하는 영역에서 앱을 테스트해야 합니다. 테스트 중에 이 변경사항을 사용 설정하거나 사용 중지하려면 호환성 프레임워크 도구를 사용하여 DISALLOW_INVALID_GROUP_REFERENCE 플래그를 전환합니다.
  • UUID 처리: 이제 java.util.UUID.fromString() 메서드가 입력 인수를 확인할 때 더 엄격한 검사를 실행하므로 역직렬화 중에 IllegalArgumentException이 발생할 수 있습니다. 테스트 중에 이 변경사항을 사용 설정하거나 사용 중지하려면 호환성 프레임워크 도구를 사용하여 ENABLE_STRICT_VALIDATION 플래그를 전환합니다.
  • ProGuard 문제: 경우에 따라 java.lang.ClassValue 클래스를 추가하면 ProGuard를 사용하여 앱을 축소, 난독화, 최적화하려고 할 때 문제가 발생합니다. 이 문제는 Class.forName("java.lang.ClassValue")가 클래스를 반환하는지 여부에 따라 런타임 동작을 변경하는 Kotlin 라이브러리에서 발생합니다. 앱이 사용 가능한 java.lang.ClassValue 클래스가 없는 이전 버전의 런타임을 대상으로 개발된 경우 이러한 최적화로 인해 java.lang.ClassValue에서 파생된 클래스에서 computeValue 메서드가 삭제될 수 있습니다.

JobScheduler는 콜백 및 네트워크 동작을 강화합니다

Since its introduction, JobScheduler expects your app to return from onStartJob or onStopJob within a few seconds. Prior to Android 14, if a job runs too long, it stops and fails silently. If your app targets Android 14 (API level 34) or higher and exceeds the granted time on the main thread, the app triggers an ANR with the error message "No response to onStartJob" or "No response to onStopJob". Consider migrating to WorkManager, which provides support for asynchronous processing or migrating any heavy work into a background thread.

JobScheduler also introduces a requirement to declare the ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE permission if using setRequiredNetworkType or setRequiredNetwork constraint. If your app does not declare the ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE permission when scheduling the job and is targeting Android 14 or higher, it will result in a SecurityException.

Tiles launch API

14 이상을 타겟팅하는 앱의 경우 TileService#startActivityAndCollapse(Intent)가 지원 중단되었으며 이제 호출될 때 예외가 발생합니다. 앱이 카드에서 활동을 실행하면 TileService#startActivityAndCollapse(PendingIntent)를 대신 사용합니다.

개인 정보 보호

사진 및 동영상에 대한 일부 액세스

Android 14 introduces Selected Photos Access, which allows users to grant apps access to specific images and videos in their library, rather than granting access to all media of a given type.

This change is only enabled if your app targets Android 14 (API level 34) or higher. If you don't use the photo picker yet, we recommend implementing it in your app to provide a consistent experience for selecting images and videos that also enhances user privacy without having to request any storage permissions.

If you maintain your own gallery picker using storage permissions and need to maintain full control over your implementation, adapt your implementation to use the new READ_MEDIA_VISUAL_USER_SELECTED permission. If your app doesn't use the new permission, the system runs your app in a compatibility mode.

사용자 환경

전체 화면 인텐트 보안 알림

With Android 11 (API level 30), it was possible for any app to use Notification.Builder.setFullScreenIntent to send full-screen intents while the phone is locked. You could auto-grant this on app install by declaring USE_FULL_SCREEN_INTENT permission in the AndroidManifest.

Full-screen intent notifications are designed for extremely high-priority notifications demanding the user's immediate attention, such as an incoming phone call or alarm clock settings configured by the user. For apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) or higher, apps that are allowed to use this permission are limited to those that provide calling and alarms only. The Google Play Store revokes default USE_FULL_SCREEN_INTENT permissions for any apps that don't fit this profile. The deadline for these policy changes is May 31, 2024.

This permission remains enabled for apps installed on the phone before the user updates to Android 14. Users can turn this permission on and off.

You can use the new API NotificationManager.canUseFullScreenIntent to check if your app has the permission; if not, your app can use the new intent ACTION_MANAGE_APP_USE_FULL_SCREEN_INTENT to launch the settings page where users can grant the permission.

보안

암시적 인텐트와 대기 중인 인텐트 제한사항

For apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) or higher, Android restricts apps from sending implicit intents to internal app components in the following ways:

  • Implicit intents are only delivered to exported components. Apps must either use an explicit intent to deliver to unexported components, or mark the component as exported.
  • If an app creates a mutable pending intent with an intent that doesn't specify a component or package, the system throws an exception.

These changes prevent malicious apps from intercepting implicit intents that are intended for use by an app's internal components.

For example, here is an intent filter that could be declared in your app's manifest file:

<activity
    android:name=".AppActivity"
    android:exported="false">
    <intent-filter>
        <action android:name="com.example.action.APP_ACTION" />
        <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />
    </intent-filter>
</activity>

If your app tried to launch this activity using an implicit intent, an exception would be thrown:

Kotlin

// Throws an exception when targeting Android 14.
context.startActivity(Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION"))

Java

// Throws an exception when targeting Android 14.
context.startActivity(new Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION"));

To launch the non-exported activity, your app should use an explicit intent instead:

Kotlin

// This makes the intent explicit.
val explicitIntent =
        Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION")
explicitIntent.apply {
    package = context.packageName
}
context.startActivity(explicitIntent)

Java

// This makes the intent explicit.
Intent explicitIntent =
        new Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION")
explicitIntent.setPackage(context.getPackageName());
context.startActivity(explicitIntent);

런타임 등록 broadcast receiver는 내보내기 동작을 지정해야 함

Apps and services that target Android 14 (API level 34) or higher and use context-registered receivers are required to specify a flag to indicate whether or not the receiver should be exported to all other apps on the device: either RECEIVER_EXPORTED or RECEIVER_NOT_EXPORTED, respectively. This requirement helps protect apps from security vulnerabilities by leveraging the features for these receivers introduced in Android 13.

Exception for receivers that receive only system broadcasts

If your app is registering a receiver only for system broadcasts through Context#registerReceiver methods, such as Context#registerReceiver(), then it shouldn't specify a flag when registering the receiver.

더 안전한 동적 코드 로드

If your app targets Android 14 (API level 34) or higher and uses Dynamic Code Loading (DCL), all dynamically-loaded files must be marked as read-only. Otherwise, the system throws an exception. We recommend that apps avoid dynamically loading code whenever possible, as doing so greatly increases the risk that an app can be compromised by code injection or code tampering.

If you must dynamically load code, use the following approach to set the dynamically-loaded file (such as a DEX, JAR, or APK file) as read-only as soon as the file is opened and before any content is written:

Kotlin

val jar = File("DYNAMICALLY_LOADED_FILE.jar")
val os = FileOutputStream(jar)
os.use {
    // Set the file to read-only first to prevent race conditions
    jar.setReadOnly()
    // Then write the actual file content
}
val cl = PathClassLoader(jar, parentClassLoader)

Java

File jar = new File("DYNAMICALLY_LOADED_FILE.jar");
try (FileOutputStream os = new FileOutputStream(jar)) {
    // Set the file to read-only first to prevent race conditions
    jar.setReadOnly();
    // Then write the actual file content
} catch (IOException e) { ... }
PathClassLoader cl = new PathClassLoader(jar, parentClassLoader);

Handle dynamically-loaded files that already exist

To prevent exceptions from being thrown for existing dynamically-loaded files, we recommend deleting and recreating the files before you try to dynamically load them again in your app. As you recreate the files, follow the preceding guidance for marking the files read-only at write time. Alternatively, you can re-label the existing files as read-only, but in this case, we strongly recommend that you verify the integrity of the files first (for example, by checking the file's signature against a trusted value), to help protect your app from malicious actions.

백그라운드에서 활동 시작에 관한 추가 제한사항

For apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) or higher, the system further restricts when apps are allowed to start activities from the background:

These changes expand the existing set of restrictions to protect users by preventing malicious apps from abusing APIs to start disruptive activities from the background.

압축 파일 경로 순회

For apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) or higher, Android prevents the Zip Path Traversal Vulnerability in the following way: ZipFile(String) and ZipInputStream.getNextEntry() throws a ZipException if zip file entry names contain ".." or start with "/".

Apps can opt-out from this validation by calling dalvik.system.ZipPathValidator.clearCallback().

For apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) or higher, a SecurityException is thrown by MediaProjection#createVirtualDisplay in either of the following scenarios:

Your app must ask the user to give consent before each capture session. A single capture session is a single invocation on MediaProjection#createVirtualDisplay, and each MediaProjection instance must be used only once.

Handle configuration changes

If your app needs to invoke MediaProjection#createVirtualDisplay to handle configuration changes (such as the screen orientation or screen size changing), you can follow these steps to update the VirtualDisplay for the existing MediaProjection instance:

  1. Invoke VirtualDisplay#resize with the new width and height.
  2. Provide a new Surface with the new width and height to VirtualDisplay#setSurface.

Register a callback

Your app should register a callback to handle cases where the user doesn't grant consent to continue a capture session. To do this, implement Callback#onStop and have your app release any related resources (such as the VirtualDisplay and Surface).

If your app doesn't register this callback, MediaProjection#createVirtualDisplay throws an IllegalStateException when your app invokes it.

업데이트된 비 SDK 제한사항

Android 14 includes updated lists of restricted non-SDK interfaces based on collaboration with Android developers and the latest internal testing. Whenever possible, we make sure that public alternatives are available before we restrict non-SDK interfaces.

If your app does not target Android 14, some of these changes might not immediately affect you. However, while you can currently use some non-SDK interfaces (depending on your app's target API level), using any non-SDK method or field always carries a high risk of breaking your app.

If you are unsure if your app uses non-SDK interfaces, you can test your app to find out. If your app relies on non-SDK interfaces, you should begin planning a migration to SDK alternatives. Nevertheless, we understand that some apps have valid use cases for using non-SDK interfaces. If you cannot find an alternative to using a non-SDK interface for a feature in your app, you should request a new public API.

이 Android 버전의 변경사항을 자세히 알아보려면 Android 14의 비 SDK 인터페이스 제한사항 업데이트를 참고하세요. 비 SDK 인터페이스에 관해 전반적으로 알아보려면 비 SDK 인터페이스 제한사항을 참고하세요.