Support different screens in web apps

Because Android is available on devices with a variety of screen sizes and pixel densities, account for these factors in your web design so that your pages are appropriately sized. WebView supports DOM, CSS, and meta tag features to help you render your web content appropriately.

When targeting your web pages for Android-powered devices, there are two major factors to account for:

The viewport
The viewport is the rectangular area that provides a drawable region for your web page. You can specify several viewport properties, such as its size and initial scale. Most important is the viewport width, which defines the total number of horizontal pixels available from the web page's point of view—the number of CSS pixels available.
The screen density
The WebView class and most web browsers on Android convert your CSS pixel values to density-independent pixel values, so your web page appears at the same perceivable size as a medium-density screen—about 160 dpi. However, if graphics are an important element of your web design, pay attention to the scaling that occurs on different densities. For example, an image that is 300 px wide on a 320 dpi screen is scaled up—it uses more physical pixels per CSS pixel. This can produce artifacts like blurring and pixelation. For simplicity, Android collapses most smaller screen densities into a few general categories: small, medium, and large. To learn more about screen density, read Support different pixel densities.

Refer to the following related resources:

Specify viewport properties

The viewport is the area in which your web page is drawn. Although the viewport's total visible area matches the size of the screen when zoomed all the way out, the viewport has its own pixel dimensions that it makes available to a web page. For example, although a device screen might have a physical width of 480 pixels, the viewport can have a width of 800 pixels. This lets a web page designed at 800 pixels wide be completely visible on the screen when the viewport scale is 1.0.

Most web browsers on Android—including Chrome—set the viewport to a large size by default. This _wide viewport mode_ is about 980 px wide. Many browsers also zoom out as far as possible by default to show the full viewport width, known as _overview mode_.

You can define properties of the viewport for your web page, such as the width and initial zoom level, using the <meta name="viewport" ...> tag in your document <head>.

The following syntax shows all the supported viewport properties and the types of values accepted by each one:

<meta name="viewport"
          height = [pixel_value | "device-height"] ,
          width = [pixel_value | "device-width"] ,
          initial-scale = float_value ,
          minimum-scale = float_value ,
          maximum-scale = float_value ,
          user-scalable = ["yes" | "no"]
          " />

For example, the following <meta> tag specifies that the viewport width matches the device screen's width and that the ability to zoom is disabled:

    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, user-scalable=no" />

When optimizing your site for mobile devices, you usually set the width to "device-width" so the size fits exactly on all devices, then use CSS media queries to flexibly adapt layouts to suit different screen sizes.

Target device density with CSS

WebView supports -webkit-device-pixel-ratio, which is a CSS media feature that lets you create styles for specific screen densities. The value you apply to this feature must be 0.75, 1, or 1.5, to indicate that the styles are for devices with low-, medium-, or high-density screens, respectively.

You can create separate stylesheets for each density:

<link rel="stylesheet" media="screen and (-webkit-device-pixel-ratio: 1.5)" href="hdpi.css" />
<link rel="stylesheet" media="screen and (-webkit-device-pixel-ratio: 1.0)" href="mdpi.css" />

Or specify the different styles in one stylesheet:

#header {

@media screen and (-webkit-device-pixel-ratio: 1.5) {
    /* CSS for high-density screens */
    #header {

@media screen and (-webkit-device-pixel-ratio: 0.75) {
    /* CSS for low-density screens */
    #header {

For more information about handling different screen densities, especially images, see High DPI images for variable pixel densities.

Target device density with JavaScript

WebView supports window.devicePixelRatio, which is a DOM property that lets you query the density of the current device. The value of this property specifies the scaling factor used for the current device. If the value of window.devicePixelRatio is 1.0, then the device is considered a medium-density device, and no scaling is applied by default. If the value is 1.5, then the device is considered a high-density device, and the page is scaled 1.5x by default. If the value is 0.75, then the device is considered a low-density device, and the page is scaled 0.75x by default.

The scaling that the Android browser and WebView apply is based on the web page's target density. As described in the section defining the viewport target density, the default target is medium-density, but you can change the target to affect how your web page is scaled for different screen densities.

For example, here's how you can query the device density with JavaScript:

if (window.devicePixelRatio == 1.5) {
  alert("This is a high-density screen");
} else if (window.devicePixelRatio == 0.75) {
  alert("This is a low-density screen");